We all know that cultivated plants are very fond of different fertilizing. What kind of fertilizers cannot be found now: mineral, organic, bacterial; and even supplements for plants (growth promoters). All of them-the food of our green Pets, and here in the first place go organic fertilizers. Let’s talk about their value to plants.
So, the composition of organic fertilizers includes only natural ingredients. As well as mineral, they contain potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, iron, magnesium and so on . The difference is that all these elements are of natural (vegetable or animal) origin.
All natural organic matter is in harmonious symbiosis with the soil, enriches it with beneficial bacteria and microorganisms, has a beneficial effect on the development and productivity of plants. The main organic fertilizers include manure, humus, peat, poultry manure and a variety of compost. Consider each of these types of organic fertilizers.
Manure from different species of animals is different in composition, in its fresh form it is undesirable to introduce into the soil, as it contains plant seeds, pathogenic bacteria and even helminth eggs. But settled from 4 months to 3 years — a great tool for enriching different types of soils.
Settled manure is applied to the soil during digging: from 5 kg to 10 kg per 1 sq.m. you can make a solution for watering: add 2-3 kg of manure to 10 liters of water. Usually it is prepared in advance and give it to infuse 10-15 days. As for getting rid of unpleasant smell in the barrel with the infusion of added silica: 200-300 g / 100 l. it is Useful to add to the infusion of manure superphosphate: 0.5 kg / 100 l.
Manure is suitable for all plants and for all types of soil, and 2-3 water fertilizing per season is enough to get a good harvest and improve the decorative quality of plants.
Itself contains not so many nutrients, but increases the humus content in the soil and significantly improves its physiological properties. In addition, the soil, abundantly fertilized with peat, becomes light and “air”, and the roots of our green Pets feel very at ease in such conditions.
Peat varies in the degree of decomposition and is:
- riding peat-poorly decomposed parts of plants (leaves, branches, roots, etc.), which is usually not used as fertilizer, but is perfect for mulching (shelter) plants for the winter and as litter for Pets;
- lowland peat-fully decomposed remains of plants (usually 8 -15 cm below the soil level). It is often used for preparation of peat-mineral compost. Especially good to make peat into the soil under the cultivation of vegetable crops and tender exotic plants;
- transitional-an intermediate state of peat between the upper and lowland. Usually used in composts of different composition. Added by mineral fertilizers, bird droppings, or manure, phosphate fertilizer, micronutrient fertilizers, lime, or ashes.
Peat can be collected in swamps and decomposed for ventilation, if you are going to mulch the soil, and you can put it in a compost pile for rotting, if you want to use it as fertilizer. By the way, peat almost 2 times reduces the content of nitrates in the fruit and significantly reduces the effect of pesticides in the soil.
To improve the fertile properties of the soil is usually enough for making 2-3 buckets of peat 1 m of soil. And it is better in the autumn to evenly scatter it in the garden, and dig only in the spring, before planting. To peat it is useful to add wood ash-200 g, a little superphosphate-20-30 g .
Bird droppings is considered a very good organic fertilizer, with the most saturated in chemical composition is chicken and pigeon. Duck and goose are less valuable.
However, an overabundance in the soil of poultry manure is fraught with the accumulation of nitrates in plants, so try to adhere to the following proportions:
- raw poultry manure: 0.5 kg per 1 sq. m soil;
- dry bird droppings: 0.2 kg per 1 sq. m of soil.
The norms are average, because the quality of the litter depends on the type of its “manufacturer”. And when buying ready-made fertilizer application instructions are written on the package.
It is also possible to prepare and aqueous extract of the manure for fertilizing plants. To do this, it is poured with water in a ratio of 1:1, tightly cover the container with a lid, and a week later a tenth of the water is added to the infusion. This solution water the plants 2-3 times per season.
Compost is a mixture of various organic fertilizers, which are stacked in piles, pits, boxes.
A layer of 10-15 cm of fallen leaves, sawdust, shavings or peat is laid on the bottom. The compost is periodically moistened and 7-12 months, he is quite ready to use. To increase the value of compost, it is possible to add superphosphate, potassium and wood ash: per 100 kg of components — 0.5 kg of superphosphate, 1 kg of potassium salt and 4-5 kg of wood ash. Here is couple ordinary recipes compost, but you, of course, you can combine themselves.
Compost from plants
Take torn weeds, grass, fallen leaves, add to them the garden land and manure in a ratio of 2:1:1, lay in the box, pour water, close the lid. Leave to rot for 7-12 months (or for a longer period).
Mix the manure with the garden soil and peat (5:1:1), put in the boxes, pour water, and after 5-6 months you will have a ready-made organic fertilizer. And the longer the compost from the manure, the more valuable quality becomes.
Sawdust as fertilizer
Usually sawdust as a fertilizer is used in combination with urea, since they practically do not contain nitrogen. Dilute 10 liters of water 250 grams of urea and pour 3 buckets of sawdust. It will be an excellent organic additive to heavy clay and loamy soils.
Treated urea sawdust introduced into the soil in the autumn, no more than 1 bucket per 2 sq.m. They are also good for mulching (shelter) plants for the winter.
Bone meal is rich in calcium and phosphorus and is applied to the soil at the rate of 3 kg per 1 sq m; as a top dressing for plants, it is almost 2 times accelerates their growth.
To prepare an aqueous solution of 1 kg of bone meal, pour 20 liters of boiling water and let it brew for a week. Periodically stir the mixture, and then filter and dilute with water 1:10. Feed the plants with a solution once a month, and the result will not slow to affect. In addition, bone meal is added to different types of compost for heavy soils. On light soils it is better to use in pure form.