The advice of the agronomist
1. Tie up cucumbers correctly!
Growing cucumber in a greenhouse is a guarantee of early harvest. Planting in a greenhouse takes place at an earlier date than in the open ground. In addition, for growing in the greenhouse, use parthenocarpic hybrids of cucumber fruit type fruiting, which have huge potential.
Cucumbers growing in a greenhouse should be tied up. For garters, you can use a variety of synthetic twine, hemp and other materials. The main thing that they were strong and elastic.
To garter cucumbers begin no earlier than 3-4 days after planting. During this time, the young roots will have time to penetrate into the soil, the plants will be fixed, which means that the probability of pulling them will be very small.
Garter twine directly to the roof can lead to the collapse of structures and adversely affect the formation of the upper part of the cucumber. Therefore, a mandatory element in the greenhouse – trellis.
- As trellis use steel wire at least 3-4 mm in diameter, because it must withstand all plants and crops.
- It is better to fix the wire not only at the edges, but also in addition, every 3-4 m to avoid tearing the trellis.
- Twine to a trellis tie tightly or a sliding loop.
- To plant twine tied at the bottom, so that it was not stretched. The stock of twine after the garter should be 10-15 cm, it is tied to the plants carefully, only with a free loop, under the first-second real sheet, remembering that in the process of growth the thickness of the stem will increase 3-4 times. If the twine is strongly tightened, then later it will crash into the stem of the plant, which can lead to its breaking or to the defeat of root rot.
- After fixing the twine, it must be carefully wrapped around the plant so that at least half a turn passes through each internode. None of the internode should not be left unattended when tied. If the internodes are too long (more than 15 cm), then 1-2 turns can be passed through them.
- It often happens that the site come quite rarely. If during this time the plants have grown and collapsed, you should not tie only one crown, it is necessary to tie each knot carefully.
- And most importantly in the garter – wrap the twine around the plant, and not Vice versa!
2. Make a cucumber right!
Who of the borage does not know how important it is to properly form a plant! Not shortened in time side shoots, increased planting density and by the middle of summer in the greenhouse making their way with difficulty. And in such tightness and any disease is spreading quickly. Many gardeners do not understand this and are lazy to form cucumber plants.
There is nothing complicated here, and believe me, properly formed this plant will pay you a rich harvest of high quality.
So, what you should know:
- If cucumbers are not formed in greenhouses, their yield can significantly decrease due to the oppression of plants caused by thickening, shading and the appearance of stem rot. In addition, it will be inconvenient to care for plants and harvest.
- In most hybrids, a significant part of the crop is formed on the main lash. To maintain a favorable relationship between the vegetative and generative parts of the plant is formed in 1 stem.
- You should also pay attention to what was chosen hybrid: branched type or with limited branching (the first require constant operations on the formation of the Bush, others they can be minimized).
Modern greenhouse hybrids, forming predominantly female flowers, are formed as follows:
1. During the first month, the plants gradually increase growth and reach a height of 50 cm or more. In the axils of the leaves they form shoots and buds that must be removed to form a powerful, well-leafy plant.
2. Further, approximately for the same length of a stalk when plants reach a half of the height, the formed lateral lashes keep, pinching at them a top over the first leaf and a female flower (the first tier of fruiting). In this area is formed of 4-5 shoots. By this time, with good care, the plants have time to form a strong leaf apparatus, and improved conditions significantly enhance the process of photosynthesis.
3. Due to this, during the next stage of growth, for another 50-60 cm, the lashes are left longer, pinching them over the second sheet and with two ovaries. The lower lashes, which have borne fruit by this time, are cut out and taken out of the greenhouse.
4. On the rest of the stem to the trellis shoots pinch even further – over the third or fourth sheet. They simultaneously formed the same number of female flowers.
5. On the side shoots of the middle and upper tiers, new second-order lashes are formed, which are pinched, respectively, over the first sheet and the ovary and the second sheet with two female flowers. Until the end of the growing season, the fruits of normal size grow from the formed cucumbers.
Cucumbers of bouquet type of flowering include varieties and hybrids that form more than 3 ovaries in each node. Cucumbers have flowers in bloom at the same time a large number of female flowers. Because of this, there is competition between the pouring fruits and flowers, as a result of which part of the ovaries turns yellow and disappears. To avoid this, use the following scheme of formation:
- The bottom 3-4 nodes are fully blind. Before trellis remove all side shoots. Only at the top of the plant leave 2-3 shoots that pinch after 2-3 leaves.
- The main stem is allowed on the trellis and upon reaching the neighboring plant is pinched. The formation of bouquet cucumbers in one stem without side shoots provides an increase in both the early and the overall harvest. This method became possible due to the fact that the bouquet of cucumbers, unlike cucumbers with non-bouquet type of flowering, on the main shoot abundantly formed ovaries.
- The necessary method of growth control – cutting in the second half of the growing season (and sometimes before) old yellow leaves in the lower tier. Systematically remove all ugly and damaged fruits and male flowers (parthenocarpic hybrids).
3. Water the cucumbers properly!
Evaporation of moisture in a greenhouse is very intense, so watering should be regular.
- To start fruiting to water the plants is possible with an interval of 3-5 days, at a rate of 3-4 l/m².
- With the beginning of the collection of cucumbers should be watered more often, after 2-3 days, and in large doses – 10-12 l/m².
- If the weather is hot, cucumbers should be watered every day. Watering is best done in the morning, from 8 to 11 hours. Allow sudden changes in soil moisture can not be, as this can lead to cracking of the stem.
Soil and soil moisture is of great importance. Humidity to start fruiting, should be 70-75%, and in the fruiting period – 75-80%.
As for the temperature regime, there are a number of rules:
- With increasing illumination, the temperature should be increased, that is, in clear weather, the temperature in the greenhouse should be higher, and in cloudy weather – lower.
At high temperature, high humidity is required, and at low – low.
- Night temperature significantly affects the growth and fruiting of cucumber. Therefore, if necessary, that the cucumbers were filled, the night temperature should raise to +21…+23°C.
- However, if the night temperatures are high all the time, the plants quickly fertilize and do not form lateral shoots.
- For uniform development apply alternation of high night temperatures and lower – at the level of +16…+18°C for 7-10 days.
4. Feed the cucumbers properly!
For fertilizing cucumbers are starting 3-4 weeks after transplanting and conduct them every 7-10 days. Since then, the cucumber gives preference to potassium, becoming especially sensitive to his disadvantage during the ripening of the fruit.
- The optimal ratio of nitrogen and potassium in this period is 1:1.5-1.8.
- If the plants are well developed and their rapid growth is planned, it is necessary to increase the amount of potassium to a ratio of 1:2.
- If there is a poor growth of lateral shoots or not at all, the ratio of nitrogen and potassium changes in the direction of increasing nitrogen fertilizers.
- And with the onset of the second wave of fruiting, the potassium dose is again increased to the original proportions.
- With the deterioration of lighting conditions, with a decrease in air temperature, cucumbers feel an increased need for potassium, which should also be taken into account.
When choosing nitrogen fertilizers should not be carried away by nitrogen in amide and ammonia form, ie fertilizers such as urea and ammonium nitrate, respectively. These types of nitrogen can block the flow of potassium, calcium and magnesium into plants. In addition, young plants excess ammonia nitrogen can cause poisoning, which is expressed in the death of leaves, and in adult plants this leads to premature aging.
When the soil temperature is below +14…+16°C part of the batteries becomes inaccessible to the roots of plants, and food is supplied in insufficient quantities. Therefore, in prolonged cold weather have a positive effect foliar feeding.
- For foliar fertilizing can be used as a specially prepared fertilizer in the form of tablets and weak solutions of water-soluble fertilizers.
- When carrying out foliar feeding for the first time it is better to try on 1-2 plants, and after a few days to assess their condition.
- Foliar feeding can be carried out once in 2-3 weeks, and if there is a prolonged cold weather, then weekly.
- It is better to spray the plants in the afternoon or in cloudy weather.
To neutralize the impact of adverse environmental factors, such as temperature drop and low light, plants to improve immunity sprayed with solutions of biological stimulants.