The fruit tree needs fertilizing at every stage of its development. A seedling that moves into your garden, a tree in full bloom, or an old man who has inherited from you-all of them require competent fertilization. And the main thing in this case — do not forget about the purpose of growing: in the orchard, we want to get a crop, “just a beautiful tree” is not interesting to us.
A high-quality seedling, brought from a reliable nursery, promises to become a full-fledged tree only in the case of proper agricultural equipment. Oddly enough, there is a continuing debate in horticultural circles about whether to prepare a planting pit. Each of the parties tries to be guided by theoretical knowledge and personal experience. There are many adherents of a way to just somehow bury a seedling in the ground, “what is there”, explaining this by saying that “there is nothing to pamper the tree from a young age”.
All the long-term experience (and most importantly — practical research of agronomists) shows that it is impossible to achieve a good result without high-quality preparation of the planting pit. At the start, you should create the most comfortable conditions for the young plant, then it will develop harmoniously and show the result that you expect.
So, the main thing to keep in mind: when planting, it is necessary to provide the seedling with everything necessary for 3 years ahead. Prepare the place in advance: for spring planting — in the fall; for autumn-in the summer. Many gardeners ignore this rule, and in vain. At least allow the prepared pit to settle for 7-10 days.
The size of the planting hole should correspond to the age and size of the root system of the seedling, but not only. Its depth and diameter depend on the composition of the soil layer and its thickness. If the soil is stony or silty, there are peat layers, then the depth of the pit should be increased to remove them or mix with a useful substrate.
It is best to make a round pit with the following average dimensions: diameter-60-80 cm, depth from 40 to 70 cm, depending on the factors described above. You need to dig a kind of pot with vertical (this is important!) walls, the top layer of soil (about the bayonet of a shovel) is thrown to one side, the bottom-to the other: it is less fertile.
More than half of the pit is filled with a nutrient substrate, which is prepared from the top layer of soil and the finished nutrient soil. These substrates should contain a maximum of useful substances necessary for the young tree, as well as agroperlite, which improves the structure of the soil. The upper part of the pit is covered with a mixture of the removed earth of the lower layer and fertile soil.
The quality of the soil that fills the planting hole depends on how quickly the tree will enter the fruiting period, as well as the speed of growth. The main macronutrients that a seedling needs after planting are phosphorus and potassium. In addition, you need high-quality organic matter (compost, peat), and in the case of acidified soils, liming is required.
It should be noted that an excess of fertilizers can harm no less than a shortage. Excessive effort in this case leads to an over-saturation of the soil solution with mineral elements, so that trees become difficult to adapt to such conditions, and they delay fruiting. Ready-made soil mixes have a well-balanced composition, which includes a complex of micro-and macronutrients, milled peat and a complex mineral fertilizer.
There are natural questions: when to start fertilizing your fruit trees and how often to do it? If you fill the landing pit well, then the young tree will have enough useful substances for 2-3 years. It should also be noted that you should not cut the seedling short after planting, placed in such comfortable conditions.
In the future, the amount of fertilizing depends on the background fertility of the land and whether your garden is watered. In General, it looks like this: an irrigated garden is fertilized twice (in spring and autumn) or three times per season, depending on the quality of the soil. If the garden is not watered, it is better to fertilize in the spring after the leaves have opened, while the ground is still saturated with moisture.
Seed crops (Apple, pear, quince) are sensitive to a lack of calcium and magnesium — this should be kept in mind when planning fertilizing. Ideally, under the fruit-bearing trees of this group in April, 30-50 g of urea (urea) per 1 m² of the trunk circle (about 150-250 g per tree). When using organics, the dose of tuks is reduced by half. At the beginning of flowering and after the appearance of ovaries, give a complex fertilizer (20-30 g/m²) and ash (150 g/m²). In mid-September, 30 g/m² of potassium sulfate is added annually; once every 3 years, 30 g/m² of double superphosphate is added. Autumn feeding can be carried out with special complexes marked “autumn”.
Stone crops (cherries, plums, apricots) need a large amount of calcium and do not like chlorine. In April, they are fed the same way as sunflower seeds. At the end of may (after flowering), make a complex mineral granular fertilizer (according to the instructions) and 100 g of ash per 1 m² of the trunk circle. In September, fertilize using seed technology; additionally, every 5-6 years in the fall, deoxidation of the soil is required.
It should be added that mineral fertilizers should be applied in furrows, and better — in pits. In any case, you can not scatter them on the surface of the earth: this is not only pointless, but also harmful. Proper fertilization is the key to a good harvest. You should start taking care of the fruit tree at the stage of preparing the planting pit. Ready-made fertile soil will help you give a good start when planting a seedling.