Gardeners have their own classification, the nerds – its, and it must be clearly understood. Many misunderstandings — for example, with the “Korean” chrysanthemums-arise from a mixture of horticultural and Botanical concepts, in particular “view” and “garden group”.
The name Crysanthemum — that is,” Golden flower “-was once given by Linnaeus Mediterranean annuals with yellow daisies”, which became the first type of representative of the genus – Chrysanthemums coronarium. By the way, this is the “edible chrysanthemum”, which has become very popular in Southeast Asia as a vegetable plant. Interestingly, at home-in Europe – it never ate, and bred purely for decorative purposes.
Then in chrysanthemums girls drop out all, that was more or less on chamomile it seems. Then the genus was disbanded, mainly on the basis of the structure of the seed. There were Tanacetum, Leucanthemum and others. Garden chrysanthemums were in the genus Dendranthema, and then they were joined by all the savages with similar seeds and other small things. Genus was isolated on the basis of non-essential features, partly arisen in the culture, and many botanists do not recognize it, so relying on the authorities, you can safely call them the old-chrysanthemums. Especially in horticultural literature, where this name is traditionally accepted.
Garden chrysanthemums are a group of hybrids with a dark past, which, at its core, evolved over the centuries in China and Japan. According to the generally accepted opinion, the founders of the Chrysanthemums morifolium became with small yellow flowers-daisies, which in nature is found in China, Korea and Japan, and is not known in the wild, but has been cultivated in these countries. It was described in France by the very purple pattern that survived the importation of 1789.
The Korean hybrids mentioned in the same place occupy an intermediate position and are characterized by woody stems at the base. To put it mildly, a formal approach. Who saw chrysanthemums in all its glory, say stronger. Given that other species were involved in hybridization.
The breeding work, which lasted for centuries, led to the creation of a group of complex hybrids, for which we often use the name of the Chrysanthemum x indicum, and in foreign literature, and may meet the name of the group, and the name of the C. x xorum, and the C. x grandiflorum, and some other names. These hybrids are very inventive in terms of shape and color of inflorescences.
Selection of chrysanthemums in historical aspect
What else was used for breeding garden chrysanthemums? Of course, first of all powerful erect species with large inflorescences. For example, the” Flora of Japan ” describes a cultivated variety of var. campanulatum, which according to the garden classification can be attributed to anemone chrysanthemums. Historians of culture called live on the rocks of C. erubescens, C. makinoi from Sunny hills, C. ornatum and C. japonense that live on the sea coasts.
The ancient breeders had a place to turn: the territory that unites the far East, China, Korea and Japan is the center of chrysanthemum diversity, where interspecies differences become hardly noticeable. Classification their confusing, unequal volume of one and the same species in understanding of different authors. In what kinship they are, different things or the same thing – the question for the thesis.
In the middle of the XIX century breeders managed to overcome the dependence of the timing of flowering chrysanthemums on the length of the day and bring a number of early flowering varieties. On the other hand, a clear dependence of flowering on the duration of the day – a valuable property of many varieties of chrysanthemums, allowing to conduct the so-called “managed culture” and get cut or pots of flowers at any time of the year. This property of plants was discovered by American scientists in 1920, and the discovery was immediately used in industrial gardening. The technology of year – round production of goods quickly spread around the world, and chrysanthemums finally embarked on its main path-the path of culture of the closed ground. Selection of new varieties was aimed at him.
The mysterious Korean hybrids
Somewhere in the seaside cliffs of the Pacific coast has been living a mysterious C. coreanum, which is often driven into synonyms that C. littorale. Fatty spreading plant with pinkish ray flowers.
It is difficult to say whether it was used by the American Alex Cumming to produce Korean hybrids. Because of the confusion in the taxonomy of chrysanthemums one name says little, you need to know how the plant looked and where it was brought. But if so, was crossbreeding news for chrysanthemums, or during the breeding of this culture has already happened? Quite possibly the latter. No wonder his hybrids so merged with a total mass other that among growers there is no single view on this mysterious group, and no one can really say what looks different Korean hybrid from the Indian small-flowered varieties.
Varieties called Korean hybrids were obtained in the 20s of the last century, and in the 30s they were already bred in nurseries in Connecticut (North-East USA). One parent became a small-flowered variety of the “Indian”, the name of which is specified differently, the second – a kind of “Korean Daisy”. It is believed that this crossing contributed to the improvement of winter hardiness. What do Americans think? In General, the same, only they have these chrysanthemums decorate the gardens until November. We have the same flowering time “Koreans” varies, and the sooner bloom, the better.
Rubellum hybrids-garden group and Botanical species
The Americans under the stamp Korean hybrids can be found varieties attributed to other directories — for example, English-to rubellum Hybrids. This is a young garden group, the appearance of the first representative of which was noted in 1935, when he received the prize of The English Royal Society. The varieties of the group-high, lean, with a strongly dissected leaf and simple large “daisies” – are considered very winter-hardy and long-lived, but they do not indulge in a variety of shapes and colors. Among them bright pink with yellow center ‘Clara Curtis’, light pink ‘Sheffield’ (‘Sheffield Apricot’), pink ‘Venus’, creamy–yellow ‘Mary Stoker’.
Hybrids Rubellum recognizable and deserve a species name — C. rubellum. The founder of the group, rubellum, was described by a specimen grown in an English garden and exhibited under the name of erubescens. However, the botanist decided that the plant is not similar to the well — known, and gave It its own name, indicating the garden origin of this species-whether mutant, or hybrid. But clearly the leading the beginning of all from the same.
In the type is a powerful erect plant up to 90 cm tall, highly branched, with large, up to 12 cm long, deeply dissected leaves and inflorescences pubescent-daisies 5-8 cm in diameter. Reed flowers pink, marked by a pleasant smell. What crossing led to the creation of other varieties — covered with darkness, but as long as they adhere to a certain plan of the structure, the group retains the identity and species name.
So what are we growing?
Now varieties that have circulation among fans of the middle band, are a complex mixture from which it is difficult to isolate the Indian group of Early finely flowering, Korean hybrids and Hybrids Rubellum.
The absence of long-lasting collections often does not allow the identification of plant names. A similar situation in the homeland of Korean hybrids. What is grown there now are plants that accidentally survived in the gardens of passionate fans of culture, and what is their origin – who knows. Ease of reproduction and their popularity among the people led to the emergence of numerous unnamed clones, some of which have lost the names and some of them never had. But when choosing a plant name means little.
I must say that the morphological and physiological diversity is striking. Within the same species in different specimens, depending on the geographical origin, the timing and duration of flowering, the attitude to local conditions and stability in culture, the duration of the decorative period vary greatly. All this is reflected in the properties of cultural chrysanthemums, giving a charming unpredictability of this plant. For each zone and even for each site it is necessary to select the range of grades that does work with chrysanthemums especially entertaining and creative.