- The principle of operation of solar panels;
- Types of solar panels;
- 1. Single crystal batteries;
- 2. Polycrystalline batteries;
- 3. Amorphous silicon batteries;
- What is included;
- Who should pay attention to solar panels;
- That can be connected to solar panel;
- What to look for when choosing;
- Pros and cons of solar panels;
Some time ago, the idea of Autonomous electrification seemed unattainable. However, with the advent of solar panels, it has become more real than fantastic. A lot of houses, “feeding” on solar panels. If you decide to install a similar design in the country, it’s time to start collecting information about what it is and what it is eaten.
The principle of operation of solar panels
To understand how the solar battery works, you will have to refresh your knowledge of physics on the topic of converting light energy into electrical energy:
- Two silicon wafers are coated with substances with different types of conductivity.
- When light hits one of the plates, free electrons appear, which move to the” free places ” of the other plate, i.e. an electric current appears.
- And it is sent by use of the thin copper conductors.
Types of solar panels
Today, from the entire range of the most popular are 3 types of batteries made of silicon:
1. Single crystal batteries
They can be easily recognized by their appearance: they are panels with beveled corners. Solar cells are square black and “look” in one direction.
The efficiency is quite high – from 15% to 25%. Such panels should always face the sun. If the day is cloudy, the sun has set or has not yet risen, the power will be at a minimum.
2. Polycrystalline batteries
A square plate of dark-blue color, sometimes with inclusions of crystals of silicon.
Compared to the first, they have a large area and are perfect for installation on large surfaces. Efficiency is lower – from 12% to 15%. But, despite this, it is polycrystalline batteries will be able to work in a rainy day.
3. Amorphous silicon batteries
This type of batteries is cheaper than the previous two. Each panel is similar to a film with blue photocells.
Their efficiency is small-about 6%. And the sprayed silicon layers quickly burn through under sunlight. But well absorb scattered light and infrared rays, so it makes sense to install in those areas where it is often cloudy.
What is included
- Panels. Their number, type and type of connection may vary depending on the purpose for which the batteries are installed;
- Accumulators. Needed for the accumulation of solar energy;
- Inverter. Converts direct current to alternating current that feeds electrical networks within the building;
- Battery charge controller. This element is located between the battery and the panels. It is necessary to ensure that the voltage on the inverter is stable;
- Machines, connectors, wires, fasteners.
Who should pay attention to solar panels
To the question about who most often buys the solar panels for the house, experts answer quite clearly.
Few make such a purchase in order to care for the environment. Someone is attracted by cost savings. Others want to provide the house with a reliable Autonomous source of energy not to depend on whims of housing and communal services (inhabitants of settlements where often disconnect electricity or it in General isn’t present).
That can be connected to solar panel
Before installing a set of solar panels is to think about what will be consumed electricity. After all, the power can be different, and it must be calculated based on how much “eats” technique. The usual set of batteries will be able to master:
- 4 energy-saving light bulbs,
- class “A” power consumption refrigerator,
- TV or pump for irrigation and another low-power device.
In this case, the battery power will be 600W.
What to look for when choosing
- Power. This is perhaps the most important criterion of choice. The larger it is, the wider the scope of the battery;
- Battery life. The larger the battery capacity, the more power you can save in case of rainy days;
- Natural factor. Cloudy, rainy weather does not allow the batteries to work effectively. In winter, the energy does not have time to accumulate. At night the situation is the same;
- The scale of floor space;
- Expected load;
- Performance class (it is best to choose class A, it is more durable);
- Manufacturer (the most popular are Sanyo, Jinko Solar, Sunpower, etc.).
Pros and cons of solar panels
The undoubted advantages of this equipment include:
- possibility to have an Autonomous power source;
- saving on light bills;
- durability and reliability;
- care about the environment.
They also have their cons:
- high cost;
- dependence on weather, time of day and time of year.
Time will tell whether or not this is a worthy alternative to centralized electricity. In the meantime, solar panels are just beginning their” way ” to our cottages.