What kind of soil should be improved at all? If you live somewhere where meadow chernozems, and your garden is generally on the site of the old regimental stables, then this is a rare success. On such a site and the harvest will be appropriate. Potatoes in the weeds-almost a bucket from the Bush, beets-two pieces in a bucket no longer fit! Of course, to try to improve such a soil is only to spoil it. It is enough for it to return as much organic matter as it has grown on it. And digging it is a crime. But we don’t have many such happy places.
Cardinal starting improvement of the soil
On simple loams, to achieve good fertility, you need to work with the soil. And in order not to wait for years, it is better to immediately improve the soil in the beds — the first and last time, but radically. If your soil is heavy loam, then you need humus, sand,and if possible, a small screening of expanded clay. If it is a poor sandy loam-humus and clay. In both cases, a third of the new volume of the bed should be organic matter, rotted to varying degrees. And only for peat bogs need fresh nitrogenous organic matter-grass or hay, kitchen waste, bad grain or spoiled feed. And also-some clay and sand.
Ideally, in all cases, the addition of complex microbial starter cultures is needed, they will start humification in one season, turn a faceless mixture of materials into a whole microbial community free of infections. Two-or three-species bioactivators will not hurt either. There is none of this — just ferment a bucket of old compost in a barrel, adding half a kilo of ash and 1-2 liters of some kind of sweet like molasses. Foam will rise in five days — immediately use: dilute with water 10 times and spill the beds in layers in the course of filling. And if you blow the air in the container, it will be ready in a day or two.
We improve the composition of the soil right on the bed
So, first mark the stationary beds: you will improve the soil in them, without touching the passages. Why do something unnecessary? The depth of improvement is no more than 35 cm, below it is still too cold. Then stock up on the necessary additives — humus, sand or clay. Then do not rush. To create two beds of 8 m in a year is a very good pace. This is because you need health! Or-good helpers and money for them, but such a coincidence is very rare.
How to turn clay soil into fertile black soil
Improving your clay bed with sand and organic matter, the most fertile top layer must be removed and folded at the edge. The soil from the bottom is mixed with sand and compost. The top layer is returned to its place also with sand. It happens that this is the only way to radically reduce the density of the soil.
After enriching the beds with organic matter for many years, you can actually get black soil as a result. The comfort zone for the roots is almost doubled, and the soil is structured by worms and roots.
A high-yield raised bed is a great option for wet areas
If you are not too lazy, we create a “wooden moisture accumulator” at the bottom of the bed. To do this, we deepen the bottom of the trench with a depth in the bayonet of the shovel. In it — logs or thick branches, in one row and in one layer. This windfall is harmless to lightly powder with some nitrogen fertilizer, moisten with manure liquid or the contents of the toilet-it will rot faster. It is useful to throw some fresh weeds — the same nitrogen. In the dry South, it is safe to pour hydrogel — a Cup per 1 m².
We return down the subsoil from the trench, pushing it between the pieces of wood. Fill the bed with the removed top layer interspersed with additives (sand/clay) and humus. It turns out a raised bed — a convex gentle shaft. The bulge adds a lot of space and illumination to the plants, and in the spring it takes on the sun’s rays better. In the steppe zone, good mulch and smart watering are needed. The result of our sweating-the bed is ready to immediately give a decent harvest. The difference is visible in the first year.
Already a lot! But this is just the beginning. The soil is not yet inhabited by living creatures, is not structured, is not pierced by roots, is not sown with coprolites of worms and other things. Now we will annually improve it with natural forces — plants, worms, microbes and fungi. But this is not difficult. Our main occupation is to feed the soil workers with siderates and all kinds of organic matter. Another important work is not to interfere with them. They’ll do the rest themselves — and do it as wonderfully as you ever dreamed.
Everyone can make almost any soil fertile. It is important to immediately determine what kind of site you got, and what materials are required to improve it.