The gardener has many worries. Fortunately, progress does not stand still, and today many types of work on the beds can be entrusted to smart devices and devices. One of these technologies, not only facilitates the work of the summer resident, but also increases productivity — drip irrigation.
How much water?
Before you buy components for drip irrigation device in your greenhouse, you need to understand how much water is required for each plant. Because IVS, hoses, pipelines and selling are different for different conditions. And the supply of water necessary for irrigation, too, would be nice to know.
As it turned out, such a simple, it would seem, the question — what is the water consumption for the greenhouse with drip irrigation, the answer is not easy to find. Various methods of calculation are offered. For example, based on the norms of tomato irrigation for industrial cultivation in the open field in the South of our country: 60 m³ per 1 Ha. In my opinion, this is not too correct for the design of the irrigation system of a small private greenhouse.
The most important feature of drip irrigation is water saving. And it really is. But you have to understand that this does not mean that plants will get less moisture than they need if you give them a drop to drink. Watering with this technology point, precious water is not spent on wetting everything around, as is often obtained by watering from a watering can, moisture evaporates from the sun-warmed earth slowly. There is an optimization of consumption, hence the savings.
How to determine how much water plants need to create optimal conditions for vegetation? It depends on different reasons:
- from the composition of the soil — granulometric and chemical. Moisture capacity depends on the density of the soil, its capillarity, organic saturation;
- from the evaporation rate. That is, the ambient temperature, humidity and measures to reduce evaporation (loosening, mulching);
- from the cultivated crop. Cabbage requires some conditions, tomatoes — others;
- from the development of the plant. What is good for seedlings, not suitable for plants in the phase of generative growth — in the formation of inflorescences and fruits;
- from the light. In Sunny weather, the absorption of nutrients by plants, and hence the consumption of water is higher than in cloudy.
Therefore, agronomists are talking about the optimum for plant development of soil moisture. A suitable parameter for intensive growth and development, for example, tomatoes — 70-80% of the total moisture content. The humidity level can be determined by a special device — soil moisture sensor.
With it you can set the desired level of humidity. Irrigation automation, controlled by such a sensor, will cancel or suspend the planned watering, if the weather is cloudy and not hot, and the plants did not have time to use up the water.
The degree of soil moisture can be determined and the old-fashioned way. Dig the soil around the plant to a depth of about 10 cm and try to sculpt a ball or sausage. If molded – the soil is moist enough, if crumbles — need watering. Well, if you can squeeze water from the earthen ball, then you overdid it.
Irrigation system project
It is necessary to start the creation of an irrigation system for a greenhouse with a project. It is necessary to take into account all the nuances, and a list of them.
Water in the drip irrigation system for the greenhouse can be supplied in several ways. The simplest is the capacity of sufficient volume. That’s where you need to know how much water is required for irrigation of the greenhouse.
To ensure the movement of water by gravity, the tank must be installed on a stand. The higher you can lift it from the ground level, the more pressure you will provide: 1 m height gives about 0.1 atmosphere.
If you have the opportunity to connect the irrigation to the water supply, on the contrary, probably need to reduce the pressure, as it can be from 1.5 to 3-4 atmospheres. For drip tapes with thin walls, the working pressure is provided within 1 atmosphere. Drip hose withstands water pressure up to 4 atmospheres, micro-drip irrigation with external drippers requires from 1 to 3 atmospheres.
It is necessary to regulate pressure of water and at use of water directly from a well or other reservoir from where it swings the pump. To reduce and stabilize the pressure in the system, a reducer is used.
The outlets of drippers are small grains of sand, particles of the sludge, the undissolved granules of fertilizer are easy to score. Therefore, the water must be cleaned before entering the system. You can set a separate filter. In addition to the pressure reducing device, this device is also a filter.
Drip irrigation is also an opportunity to feed plants comfortably. If you plan to apply fertilizers at the same time as watering, then include a dispenser for fertilizers in the project of the system.
After the water is extracted and prepared (you have purified it and added nutrients), we proceed to the delivery to consumers — plants.
Water pipes, such as polypropylene pipes, can be used as a main pipeline. Choosing them, note that polypropylene is afraid of ultraviolet radiation, that is, the usual plumbing white pipes in the sun are destroyed. If you are planning an open water supply system, look for components with UV protection or use pipes made of low-pressure polyethylene.
Garden water can be done with the help of conventional watering hoses. On sale there is a full set of fittings, fittings and connectors that allow you to assemble the most complex configuration and connect to the irrigation tap.
One of the ways of drip irrigation is through external drippers. This option is more convenient than drip tape or drip hose with integrated drippers. Delivery of water can be organized in the place where you have a plant, and not only where the manufacturer has provided.
Besides the watering system with external droppers are less clogged than tape. Manufacturers suggest their long-term use.
A sprinkler system makes it much easier to care for the plantings. But even better results will help to achieve the installation of devices that automate this process. Especially if you plan to water not only the greenhouse, but also other objects on the site — lawn, flower garden, hedge, berry plantation or fruit trees.
Irrigation timers, regulators, flow meters and sensors are of course not mandatory elements. But how comfortable!