Modern man, spoiled by such benefits of civilization as water supply and Sewerage, not to mention the Internet and robots, it is difficult to imagine what value for our ancestors had water sources. All ancient cities, including those that still exist, were built near rivers, lakes or other fresh water bodies. As the population increased and to protect against raids, people began to settle away from open water sources. This became possible due to the construction of wells.
Wells: history and modernity
The construction of wells was not an easy task. Dug them hereditary farm, who knew all the details of this case. And this work was expensive. They treated wells with special reverence and even sometimes with fear, considering them as a link with the other world.
The wells were public. No one thought to build them in their yard. Not only because of the high cost, but certainly on the basis of popular beliefs. The place was chosen very carefully always: participated dowsers, put the pan upside down on the places — to see whether they dew. Hereditary wells knew and other signs on which it was possible to define close presence of ground waters without any ultrasonic and x-ray devices.
What is most interesting, the old wells, sometimes still found in the hinterland, give excellent water — they do not have a problem with its turbidity, and with the number of special difficulties there.
For the construction of wells in the middle and Northern latitudes used wood as the most affordable building material. In southern areas they are often made of stone.
When to build a well our ancestors knew better than modern “builders”. It was considered that the work may be started after June 21. This is quite logical — after the flood and the decline of the high water, you can dig a well, without fear that in the dry season or snowy winter it dries up.
Despite many modern developments and achievements, drinking wells do not go out of fashion in our time. If we plan to live outside the city, it usually starts with this source of water.
Today is considered a traditional well of concrete rings — they are strong enough to carry out work in just a couple of days. And although it seems that, using this material, everyone can dig a well, there are experienced and hereditary teams that carefully preserve and protect their knowledge and secrets of construction. Later I will tell you what you should pay attention to if you decide to do the device of a drinking source in your area. It’s not enough just to dig concrete rings into the ground!
As you have already understood, the well is a very ancient hydrological structure present in the culture of many peoples. Any well in different versions is a source of water, drinking or technical. That is why I believe that it is impossible to talk about its construction, operation and solution of various problems without understanding the structure of this structure and the structure of the soil. With these basics we will start talking about drinking wells.
There is no need to go into Geology and hydrology at the student level. But it should be understood that usually the rocks lie in the ground layers. No matter: it is a layer of sand, clay, limestone or ore. If the layer at opening gives water, it is called aquifer. If he does not give the water and rejects it, that waterproof. Groundwater that a person can use for their needs, traditionally divided into three main types: high water, groundwater and artesian.
Aquifers: 1 – water-resistant layers; 2 – high water (soil water); 3 – groundwater; 4 – artesian (pressure) water; a, b – wells.
High water is formed at shallow depths due to precipitation and open water seeping through the soil. Its reserves are usually small and highly dependent on rainfall. High water is poorly filtered by soil. In dry periods and winter it disappears. It is necessary to strive to ensure that these waters are not involved in the filling of the well.
Groundwater is most suitable for domestic drinking water supply. They occur in aquifers between two water-resistant, characterized by stable reserves and high quality. It is the groundwater of the first or second aquifers that usually feeds the well. At the exit of such a layer to the surface there are springs with clean, cold water.
Artesian water – the deepest. They are located from 40 m and deeper, where they are like clamped between two water-resistant layers. This layer is usually reached during the construction of wells. When it is opened, the water freely rises through the well above the waterproof layer, sometimes it can even gush.
This publication opens a series of articles in which I will talk in detail about all the nuances of the device wells, problems and ways to solve them. I know that many summer residents have relations with wells, to put it mildly, tense. Ask your questions in the comments, help advice.