Exposure, aperture and shutter speed-from these “magic spells” depends on the technical quality of the picture-overexposure and underexposure. We will teach you how to “tame” these important functions.
In the work of novice photographers it is evident that they have often problems with the correct exposure frame, that is, the pictures are too dark, on the contrary, very bright.
Exposure is the amount of light that falls on the camera’s photosensitive matrix over a period of time. To obtain a high-quality picture, you need to be able to dose the volume of this flow, which is achieved by accurately selecting the aperture and shutter speed.
The luminous flux is regulated by the aperture (in the designation system-f, a round hole inside the lens, the size of which can be changed). The amount of light entering through the lens to the matrix is determined by the degree of opening of this “hole”, as photographers say.
The rule is simple: the smaller the value of the diaphragm number, the larger the aperture. When the aperture is open (for example, f/2,8), a lot of light enters the camera, and when closed (for example, f/16 or f/22) — very little.
Shutter speed — the period of time during which light hits the matrix, it is regulated by the shutter speed of the camera. Changing the shutter speed allows you to creatively display moving objects in pictures. In gardens, shutter speed is especially important when shooting fast-running children, Pets, flying birds, when shooting running water or plants swaying in the wind.
A short shutter speed in the hundredths and thousandths of a second “freezes” the movement of the subject, and a long “smears” it.
In addition, long exposures allow you to shoot with a tripod scenes with great sharpness in the twilight, without resorting to increasing the sensitivity of the matrix (ISO), which is fraught with an increase in the “grain” and deterioration of the image quality.
When shooting in automatic mode, the camera with the built-in exposure meter itself determines the necessary ratio of shutter speed and aperture, which is called expopara. But it is much more effective to shoot in creative modes, setting the desired values of these indicators in advance.
The exact exposure of the frame-that’s what you should pay attention to in the first place. The use of exposure compensation — a function available in almost every camera-is of great help when shooting. The exposure compensation button is usually indicated on the camera panel by the symbol”±”, its use allows you to shift the exposure by several steps in the positive (brightening the frame) or negative (darkening the frame) side.
When shooting garden and natural scenes on a Sunny day, it is sometimes difficult to get a properly exposed picture. The matter is that the range of perception by a matrix of the digital camera of lights and shadows is limited, and it, happens, cannot reflect in one shot all breadth of brightness of separate subjects. It should be remembered that the wider the dynamic range of the matrix, the better the transfer of shades in lights and shadows, as well as less unpleasant noise and cleaner colors in the picture. When photographing in such difficult conditions, images are often obtained simultaneously overexposed in bright places and underexposed in dark ones. The contrast of objects within the frame can be very high, for example, between deep shadows under bushes and white clouds. In such cases, experienced photographers take several shots with different exposures and in a special program combine them into one properly exposed picture.
Tip: if you are a beginner photographer, try not to include in the frame at the same time the lightest and darkest fragments.
After viewing the shot frame on the camera display, you can reshoot it if necessary by adjusting it with the exposure compensation function.
The camera menu usually provides a histogram (a graph of the distribution of lights and shadows in the picture), with which you can control the result. It is possible to correct not too rough mistakes of exposure in graphic editors, but it is better, of course, to learn to shoot correctly at once.