First Aid for Bruises and Sprains

Bruises, sprains or sprains – these troubles happen to us unexpectedly. The injury can be obtained anywhere: not only doing sports on the street, but also doing the usual household chores. Especially careful to be when carrying out on your site construction or repair work, redevelopment of the house or the surrounding area.

Children are often injured in normal outdoor games, Cycling, scooter or skateboarding.

What are the injuries

Injury we usually call injury to soft tissues or internal organs with the preservation of the skin. The external sign of the injury is a bruise, or — scientifically-a hematoma. It is formed as a result of capillary bleeding.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Bruising — or hematoma, is an external sign of injury

Within a few days after the injury, the color of the hematoma changes from Burgundy-bluish to green-yellow — then they say that the bruise bloomed. This is due to the gradual oxidation of hemoglobin. The only way to prevent this is to make sure that the size of the bruise is minimal, and to ensure optimal flow of venous blood from the injury site.

Injuries are classified by depth: superficial and deep (for example, internal injuries). In addition, they can be local or extensive.

What to do if you are hurt

First aid for injury-cold. You can use ice or any frozen product from the freezer. Remember: apply ice directly to the skin can not. Be sure to wrap the ice with a towel or a soft cloth.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
In place of the injury should be put ice, wrapped with a soft cloth

If there is a bruise, the skin surface should be treated with peroxide. You can apply to the site of injury iodine mesh (only those who are not allergic to iodine!).

Cold on a strong injury is applied for 15-20 minutes, then take a break for 15-20 minutes. Cold compresses are effective in the first day after the injury, then it is treated with heat to speed up resorption.

Bruise there is, and trauma there is no

If the bruise appeared out of the blue, without a fall or other traumatic situation, you need to be alert. When bruises appear on the body for no reason, it can be a symptom of blood disease, a violation of its coagulability or increased fragility of blood vessels.

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First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Bruise there is, and trauma there is no

If you notice any such bruising on your child or an elderly person, see your doctor for an examination.

What are the injuries that can be dangerous

The most dangerous for the health injuries of the internal organs, spine and brain. Internal organs often suffer from abdominal trauma or falling from the height of their own growth backwards.

Abdominal and internal injuries

Bruising of the abdomen and internal organs often happens in children when falling on the Playground or when riding a bike — when the child stumbles on the bike handlebar belly with a sharp braking front wheel. In adults, injuries to internal organs can occur when a bad fall or blow to the abdomen. Such injuries are dangerous because internal bleeding can develop in the absence of external signs.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Contusion of the abdomen accompanied by severe pain

If this happens, lay the victim, determine whether the pain persists. In case of severe abdominal pain, pallor, feverish and excited state, tachycardia (rapid pulse), immediately transport the victim to the reception Department of the nearest hospital.

Brain contusion

Our brain is located in a closed space of the skull. When the head is injured, the brain substance may suffer: there is a concussion or a brain injury. In people, brain injury is often called a concussion. However, these are different things.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
When injuring the head, the brain may suffer

A concussion is the most mild brain injury. Trauma can be accompanied by short-term loss of consciousness, attacks nausea. The injury, unlike concussion, is accompanied by damage of a brain tissue. With a brain injury, a person loses consciousness. There is intense headache and repeated vomiting.

Important! Brain injury — a dangerous condition that requires emergency hospitalization.

First aid for brain injury or concussion:

  • place the victim on a hard, flat surface;
  • determine the level of consciousness;
  • optimal position-on the side: the victim can pull out;
  • if there is bleeding, apply a bandage;
  • if you lose consciousness, use ammonia or water to wipe your face;
  • control breathing and heartbeat, in their absence, turn the victim on his back and start cardiopulmonary resuscitation;
  • it is not recommended to give the victim to drink water with a head injury – it can cause swelling;
  • apply ice wrapped in a towel to the injury site;
  • call an ambulance.
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First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
If there is bleeding, apply a bandage

Sprains and sprains — how to distinguish and what to do

Dislocation is called loss of the head of the bone from the articular joint. Dislocation can also be complete and incomplete. Incomplete dislocation is more commonly called a subluxation. Stretching is, in fact, a partial interruption of ligament fibers. First aid in tension is often difficult because the injury is not detected immediately. Important: when stretching, the pain may not occur immediately, but after 1-2 hours after injury. The joint thus becomes edematous, its motor function is disturbed.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
You need to be able to distinguish between dislocation and stretching

Signs of dislocation

Pain with dislocation is very strong, often exceeds the intensity of the pain with a bone fracture. In the damaged joint, movement is absent or significantly limited. There is an incorrect form of the joint compared to healthy. The limb acquires a forced position-a person can maintain a healthy hand to the patient, which brings relief.

The most common dislocation is observed in the following joints:

  • the shoulder joint is a record holder for the number of dislocations, both primary and repeated; dislocation of the shoulder bone may be accompanied by a fracture;
  • lower jaw;
  • the hip joint is a rather unpleasant dislocation, can be accompanied by a fracture of the neck of the hip bone;
  • the phalanges, especially often suffer from the thumb.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
The dislocation is accompanied by very severe pain

First aid for dislocation

1. To ensure the immobility of the injured extremity. The upper limb is best fixed with a bandages.

2. The most important thing you should know when providing assistance: reducing dislocation is a medical manipulation. Contact the emergency room. Note: incorrect actions lead to the formation of the usual dislocation.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Dislocation sets the doctor

In any dislocation before reduction, it is necessary to perform an x-ray. A small dislocation can set off spontaneously. It is important to remember that the joint capsule after the injury remains stretched. Therefore, a doctor’s examination, a picture and a bandage are necessary even after self-reduction of dislocation.

Habitual dislocation

The usual dislocation is often formed in the shoulder area, at least-in the phalanges of the fingers, elbow, in the jaw joint. With repeated dislocation, joint capsule stretching occurs, and in the future even a slight sharp movement can lead to injury. Therefore, traumatologists recommend the operation to strengthen the joint capsule, and physical therapy aimed at strengthening the muscles can reduce the frequency of relapses.

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A person suffering from the usual dislocation, can often set it yourself. But it is worth remembering that as a result of the usual dislocation, arthrosis of the joint is formed.

First aid for dislocation of the jaw

Dislocation of the jaw occurs when you try to open your mouth wide, bite off something big. This often happens during medical examinations, in the dentist’s office.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Dislocated jaw

The reduction of dislocations that occurred for the first time, is performed only by a specialist in a medical institution. The only thing that can be done is to fix the jaw with a bandage or a kerchief around the head and take the victim to the emergency room.

First aid for sprains

Apply a fixing bandage with a regular or elastic bandage. Cold in the first hours after injury will reduce swelling, pressure cross bandages promote recovery.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Applying a cross-shaped dressing

In case of injury to the ankle, bring the foot up and fix it with a wide bandage in this position. When stretching the ligaments of the ankle joint, the outer ankle often breaks, so it is advisable to take a picture with a pronounced pain syndrome.

Stretching of the wrist joint ligaments can occur when falling on the hands or when jerking, uncomfortable movements. It is recommended to apply a bandage of elastic bandage on the wrist.

When stretching the ligaments of the elbow, wrist, ankle or knee joint, you can buy a special orthopedic bandage. It securely locks the joint and can protect from re-injury.

First Aid for Bruises and Sprains
Fixing bandages

How dangerous are sprains: when to see a doctor

Stretching can be dangerous in terms of violation of the limb and the formation of a focus of chronic pain. An unpleasant feature of stretching is that they tend to be repeated in the same place.

If a person is prone to stretching, it may indicate a congenital weakness of the connective tissue. A weak connective tissue leads to the formation of heart valve prolaps, the formation of intervertebral hernias and other problems. Timely access to the orthopedist or traumatologist will help to avoid unpleasant consequences.

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